- - ABC-INDEX - -

12/31/2019

Welcome !

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Welcome to O-Mamori ! お守り and Mingei 民芸 ! 

The rich world of Japanese amulets and talismans,
sold at Buddhist temples and Shinto shrine all over Japan.




The folk art and folk craft of Japan with its many folk toys (gangu 玩具)
has produced many small items to protect from illness, bring good luck and money and wish for general happiness for the family.
Introducing regional monsterlins, ghosts and demons and how people coped with them.
Introducing miniatures of figures from festivals and rituals and much more !


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. . - - - - ABC - INDEX - - - - . .

- AAA - / - BBB - / - CCC - / - DDD - / - EEE -

- FFF - / - GGG - / - HHH - / - I I I - / - JJJ -

- KK KK - / - LLL - / - MMM - / - NNN - / - OOO -

- PPP - / - QQQ - / - RRR - / - SSS - / - TTT -

- UUU - / - VVV - / - WWW - / - XYZ -


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. General Information . Essays .



. Join the Ukiyo-E friends on facebook ! .




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Amulets from Shrines and Temples
. Shinsatsu 神札 , Mamorifuda 守り札 .


How to make a wish come true . . .
. Gankake 願掛け wish-prayer, to make a wish .


Little things for good luck
. Engimono 縁起物


Folk Art and Folk Craft
. mingei 民芸 and folk craft museums

. minzokugaku 民俗学 / 民族学 folklore studies, ethnology .


Kyoodoo gangu 郷土玩具 Kyodo Gangu Folk Toys
. Regional Folk Toys from Japan .
- From Hokkaido to Okinawa -


Regional monsters and demons
. Yookai 妖怪 Yokai monsters, demons - Introduction
yuurei 幽霊 Yurei, ghost
bakemono 化け物  o-bake お化け


Furusato, home village, home town, Heimat
This is where you feel at home, where the ancestors are close by, where everything is all right. It is an emotion deep inside the Japanese soul.
. Furusato ふるさと, 故郷、古里 .


. Festivals, Ceremonies, Rituals . SAIJIKI

. Kami to Hotoke - the Deities of Japan .


. Japan - Shrines and Temples .


. WASHOKU - Regional Dishes from Japan


. Reference, Books . . . .


Your guide is

Dr. Gabi Greve
Okayama Japan

. Daruma Museum Japan .


- - - The alphabetical Daruma index: - - -
Use your browser to find a keyword.

. Contents A - C . - - - . Contents D - F .
. Contents G - J . - - - . Contents K .
. Contents L - N . - - - .Contents O - R .
. Contents S . - - -  . Contents T - Z .








. Join the MINGEI group on facebook ! .

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This BLOG is dedicated to
the brave people of Tohoku, after March 11, 2011

. Japan after the BIG earthquake March 11, 2011

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- - - - - - #omamori #mingei #folklore #folkart #legendsofjapan -
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12/30/2019

- Omamori - INFO

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quote
Omamori (御守, o-mamori)
are Japanese amulets dedicated to particular Shinto deities as well as Buddhist figures. The word mamori (守り) means protection, with omamori being the polite sonkeigo form of the word mamoru, "to protect".

Design and function

The amulet covering is usually made of cloth and encloses papers or pieces of wood or paper with prayers written on them which are supposed to bring good luck to the bearer on particular occasions, tasks or ordeals. Omamori are also used to ward off bad luck and are often spotted on bags, hung on cellphone straps, in cars, etc. for safety in travel. Many omamori are specific in design to the location they were made.

They often describe on one side the specific area of luck or protection they are intended for and have the name of the shrine or temple they were bought at on the other. Generic omamori exist, but most of them cover a single area: health, love, or studies, to name only a few. It is said that omamori should never be opened or they lose their protective capacities. Amulets are replaced once a year to ward off bad luck from the previous year. Old amulets are usually returned to the shrine or temple so they can be disposed of properly.

Modern commercial uses
There are modern commercial versions for these that are typically not spiritual in nature and are not issued by a shrine or temple. They do not confer protection or need to be replaced every year. It has become popular for stores in Japan to feature generic omamori with popular characters such as Mickey Mouse, Hello Kitty, Snoopy, Kewpie, etc.



Some popular omamori are:

Kanai Anzen: For good health and help with illness.
Kōtsū Anzen: Protection for drivers and travelers of all sorts.
En-musubi: Available for singles and couples to ensure love and marriage.
Anzan: Protection for pregnant women during term and to ensure a safe and easy delivery.
Gakugyō Jōju: for students and scholars.
Shōbai Hanjō: Success in business and matters of money.

source : WIKIPEDIA


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People go to a temple or shrine and pray or make a vow for something special.
They hope their prayers will be heared and richess, health etc. bestowed upon them.

goriyaku, go riyaku 御利益, ご利益 reward
receiving merits and benefits


Vows and prayers must be sincerely petitioned and gratitude must be shown if a wish is granted.
Otherwise there will be a divine retribution (tatari 祟り 。たたり)


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special fuda talismans, shinpu 神符
taima たいま(大麻), oonusa おおぬさ
gofu, gofuu 護符/御符




gohei 御幣(ごへい)strips of white paper on a wand
used to purify a place or person by waving over it.


nusa 幣(ぬさ)
They come in many variations, according to the shrine and deity they are used for.

quote
Gohei
A kind of ritual wand; one type of heihaku, also called heisoku. Originally gohei were identical to cloth offerings called mitegura, but the term gradually came to be used in today's more narrow sense. Gohei are made by attaching zig-zag strips of gold, silver, white or multicolored (five-color) paper to a staff (called a heigushi) made of bamboo or other wood.

Originally, offerings of cloth were presented to the kami by attaching them to a staff, and this practice forms the origin for today's customary gohei. Also, while rectangular paper was used at first, the custom later developed of attaching streamers called shide to the sides.

Originally an offering to the kami, gohei stood deep within the sanctuary and came to be viewed as a mishōtai, an object in which the spirit of the kami resided, or else were placed before the kami as a decoration similar to mirrors, or were used as implements with which to purify worshipers at the shrine.
source : Motosawa Masashi, Kokugakuin, 2005



For some festivals there is a special
. gohei no atama kazari 御幣の頭飾り headgear with gohei decoration .




In Red and White, koohaku 紅白 for extra power.


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. Shimenawa 注連縄 a sacred rope .



MORE about

. Shinsatsu 神札 , Mamorifuda 守り札 .

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Have your own O-Mamori made
Produced by 池上實相寺 ikegami jissouji
- reference : omamo.me/ -

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12/29/2019

. . . Regional Toys . . . LIST

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. Regional Daruma Dolls from Japan .


  


Regional Folk Toys - From Hokkaido to Okinawa

日本の郷土玩具 gangu
日本のおもちゃ omocha


Use "MY LABLES" on the right side to find the entries.


CLICK for more photos



This BLOG is dedicated to the brave people of Tohoku.

. Japan after the BIG earthquake March 11, 2011

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HOKKAIDO 北海道 [ 道北 道東 道央 道南 ]

. HOKKAIDO . and . AINU .

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TOHOKU 東北 [ 青森 岩手 宮城 秋田 山形 福島 ]

. AKITA .

. AOMORI .

. FUKUSHIMA .

. IWATE .

. MIYAGI .

. YAMAGATA .


DARUMA after the great earthquake of March 11, 2011

. Tohoku Daruma .


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KANTO 関東
[ 東京 神奈川 埼玉 千葉 茨城 栃木 群馬 ]

. CHIBA .

. GUNMA, GUMMA .

. IBARAKI / IBARAGI .

. KANAGAWA - Yokohama - Kamakura .

. SAITAMA .

. TOCHIGI - Nikko .

. TOKYO - Edo .


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. . . . . Chubu, Chuubu Chihoo 中部地方





SHINETSU 信越 [ 新潟 長野 ]

. NAGANO .

. NIIGATA .

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HOKURIKU 北陸 [ 富山 石川 福井 山梨 ]

. FUKUI .

. ISHIKAWA .

. TOYAMA .

. YAMANASHI .


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TOKAI 東海 [ 愛知 岐阜 静岡 ]

. AICHI - Nagoya .

. GIFU . Hida, Mino .

. SHIZUOKA .


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KINKI / KANSAI 近畿 [ 大阪 兵庫 京都 滋賀 奈良 和歌山 三重 ]

. HYOGO - Kobe, Himeji .

. KYOTO, Kyooto, Kioto .

. MIE - Ise Shrine .

. NARA .

. OSAKA .

. SHIGA .

. WAKAYAMA Kishu .


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CHUGOKU CHIHO 中国 [鳥取 島根 岡山 広島 山口 ]
Western Japan 西日本 Nishi Nihon


. HIROSHIMA .

. OKAYAMA .

. SHIMANE .

. TOTTORI .

. YAMAGUCHI .


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SHIKOKU 四国 [ 徳島 香川 愛媛 高知 ]

. EHIME .

. KAGAWA .

. KOCHI (Koochi, Tosa) .

. TOKUSHIMA - AWA .


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KYUSHU Kyuushuu 九州
[ 福岡 佐賀 長崎 熊本 大分 宮崎 鹿児島 ]

. FUKUOKA - Hakata - Kita-Kyushu .

. KAGOSHIMA (Satsuma) .

. KUMAMOTO .

. MIYAZAKI, MIYASAKI .

. NAGASAKI .

. OITA .

. SAGA .


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.OKINAWA 沖縄 . Ryukyu 琉球 .


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. WASHOKU .
Regional Dishes from Japan



. O MATSURI お祭り .
Regional Festivals from Japan



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5/03/2019

karako Chinese children

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. Legends and Tales from Japan 伝説 - Introduction .
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karako 唐子 Chinese children
lit. "Tang children"

. Gosho ningyoo 御所人形 Gosho dolls from the Imperial Palace .
- Introduction -

Karako are very similar to Gosho ningyo.



They carry auspicious items, like peaches or turtle and crane for longevity or a treasure ship (takarabune 宝船) for good financial fortunes.


- quote -


Many of us have probably seen them at one time or another... drawings of cute little children, dressed in Chinese style, on bowls or dishes.
These children are called "karako" (唐子), which literally translate to "Chinese children". "Kara" (唐) is actually the character for the Tang dynasty (618-907) of China, considered by many as the golden age Chinese culture and power. The little children design on pottery symbolizes health for sons & daughters and longevity/continuity.
The number of children on the design also have significance. You will probably see three, five or seven children. (Always odd, never even number!)
The more children on the pottery, the higher is its grade.
.. . . the ikebana shop
- reference source : facebook -

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. Karako - こけし Kokeshi wooden dolls .

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source : shoindo.com...

. . . CLICK here for more Photos of teacups !

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source : yugyofromhere.blog8.fc2.com...

嬰児図(唐子図)享保六年(1721)Painting from 1721


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source : yahoo shopping

九谷焼 陶器掛け時計 clock from Kutani ware


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source : pixta.jp/tags...

Panda karako パンダ唐子


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. hasu no mi karako ningyoo 蓮の実唐子人形 Chinese children on Lotus .
They can be used as a decoration for New Year or at the entrance hall to entertain visitors.

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Aichi 愛知県 

. taiko-uchi karako 太鼓打ち唐子 "Chinese Boy" beating the drum .

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Miyagi 宮城県


source : newday.sakura.ne.jp/claydolls/tutumi...

太鼓打ち唐子 Karako beating the drum


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Tottori 鳥取県

. 象唐子 elephant and Chinese child - doll .


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Yamagata 山形県


source : upp.so-net.ne.jp/kyoudoningyou...

taikomochi 太鼓打ち唐子 Karako beating the drum



source : popeye.sakura.ne.jp/yamagata...

tora nori 虎乗り唐子 Karako riding on a tiger
相良土人形 Sagara clay dolls


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. . . CLICK here for Photos !

. Reference .

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. Join the MINGEI group on facebook ! .  



. Regional Folk Toys from Japan .

. Japan - Shrines and Temples .


. Tohoku after the BIG earthquake March 11, 2011

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- - - #karako #chinesechildren - - - - -
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5/01/2019

Tabineko mingei store

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. Legends and Tales from Japan 伝説 - Introduction .
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Tabineko Zakkaten 旅猫雑貨店 Mingei store
The Travelling Cat




- HP of the store
source : tabineko.jp/shop_info...
東京都豊島区雑司が谷2-22-17 // Tokyo Toshima ward, Zoshigaya

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. Tabineko on facebook .





江戸独楽と木地玩具コレクション Wooden Toys from the Edo period

- 江戸独楽と木地玩具 - photos -




ヤチコダルマ Yachiko Daruma

- #yashikodaruma ヤチコダルマ photos -




猫国遊び絵 ~にゃんごくあそびえ~ cats playing
元祖ふとねこ堂個展

- 猫国遊び絵 - photos -

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Exhibition of Hariko from Japan
日本縦断張子の旅」




【北海道】マリモ
【福島】フラダンス娘
【福井】フクイサウルス
and more from the
Collection of 松崎大祐 Matsuzaki Daisuke
source : tabineko.seesaa.net...



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. . . CLICK here for more Photos !


. gangu 玩具 伝説, omochcha おもちゃ  toy, toys and legends .
- Introduction -


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. Join the MINGEI group on facebook ! .  



. Regional Folk Toys from Japan .

. Japan - Shrines and Temples .


. Tohoku after the BIG earthquake March 11, 2011

[ . BACK to WORLDKIGO . TOP . ]
[ . BACK to DARUMA MUSEUM TOP . ]
- - - #tabineko - - - - -
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3/11/2019

okeya bucket maker

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. Legends and Tales from Japan 伝説 - Introduction .
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okeya 桶屋 bucket maker

oke 桶 bucket, taru 樽 barrel (made from wood)
They are used for many purposes.
In Edo, many worked in the Kyobashi 京橋 district and also in Okemachi.


酒樽屋 実は桶屋 - Katsushika Hokusai 葛飾北斎

Buckets of all sizes were used for many activities in the lives of the Edo people. Most buckets were made from wood, with a more or less deep bottom.
They were used for washing robes or rice, keeping Tsukemono pickles, and
keeping cooked rice (komebitsu 米櫃 rice stocker).


source : japan-design.imazy.net/jp/crafts/azmaya...


- quote -
... traveling artisans ...
to use wooden buckets and barrels to hold liquids. The boards of buckets and barrels are held together with cylindrical hoops, and when the hoops got old and broke or bent, a specialist artisan would repair them by binding them with new pieces of bamboo. These too could be efficiently repaired on the spot if one called a traveling artisan who carried materials and tools with him.
Furutaru-kai (Used-barrel Buyers)
In the past, barrels were the most common containers for liquids, so the barrels would be owned by drinking establishments, or in the case of “uchitaru” (literally “home barrels”), they were owned by the person who bought them. However, there were some barrels where it wasn’t clear who the owner was, and in that case, when the barrels were empty, they were no longer needed, and their ownership was in question.
here were special merchants who bought those old barrels, and there were specialty barrel wholesaler stores. There were even empty barrel wholesalers on the main streets in Nihonbashi, showing that it must have been a big business.
- reference source : edo-period-recycling -



source : mirukikukaku/e

風が吹けば桶屋が儲かる If the wind blows, the Okeya makes good money . . .
The humorous reason is a bit difficult to understand:

- quote -
①大風で土ぼこりが立つ If strong wind blows, there will be a lot of dust.
②土ぼこりが目に入って、盲人が増える If dust comes into the eyes, people will get blind,.
③盲人は三味線を買う(当時の盲人が就ける職に由来)Blind people buy Shamisen string instruments to make a living.
④三味線に使う猫皮が必要になり、ネコが殺される To make Shamisen, the skin of cats is used.
⑤ネコが減ればネズミが増える If there are fewer cats, there are more mice.
⑥ネズミは桶を囓る Mice will gnaw at the OKE barrels.
⑦桶の需要が増え桶屋が儲か Therefore the Okeya will have more work to do.
- reference : mirukikukaku/e-

Well, he also made kanoke 棺桶 coffins.
And if the wind blows, there will be a fire somewhere and then . . .
So he also made suitable buckets to carry water from the waterway.
Others specialized in buckets and barrels for bathing or keeping Sake.

According to its use, the thickness and type of the wood varied considerable. And buckets for liquids had to be especially tight. The wood was fastened with stripes of bamboo.



- quote
Nakagawa Shuji: Oke Maker
Shuji Nakagawa is a Japanese traditional craftsman of woodworks and a contemporary artist. He creates his works using a various woodwork techniques especially Japanese traditional wooden pail technique.
- source : handmade/shuji-nakagawa
- source : www.kyotojournal.org


. My entries with OKE .

. shokunin  職人 craftsman, craftsmen, artisan .


- - - - - Different types of OKE



- source : kotobank.jp/word... -

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taru 樽 barrel
taru kai 樽買い / taruya 樽屋 buying barrels, making barrels
furudaru kai 古樽買い buying old barrels

Barrels were used to keep all kinds of liquids. The most important was Sake 酒 rice wine.
Some homes had their own barrel for sake, 家樽. Some of these had no special owner or lost him, and were collected by a specialist, who brought them to the wholesaler of empty barrels, 空き樽専門問屋. Many of these wholesalers had their home at 日本橋の大通り Nihonbashi, so it seems it was a lucrative business.
This is one of the recycle businesses of Edo.



. My entries with taru 樽 .

- quote -
... people usually used wooden tubs and barrels to store liquids. Wooden tubs and barrels were made of wooden slats fastened by bamboo hoops. When the hoops aged and broke or warped, the craftsmen fixed the tubs and barrels with new bamboo fasteners.
... the barrels used to store products of fermentation such as sake, soy sauce and miso were invariably made from cross-grained slats to prevent leaks, while tubs, such as those used for sushi (vinegared rice), were normally made of straight-grained slats to help absorb excess water. Both barrels and tubs are made in the same way, with a round base being slotted into a cylindrical arrangement of slats which is then held together tightly by hoops to prevent leakage of the contents.

The hoops used traditionally in Japan were made of woven bamboo strips, and so tended to stretch and loosen in time due to the constant strain and moisture to which they were exposed. These days, barrels with loose hoops would just be thrown out, but in the past there were specialized artisans (effectively a subset of coopers) who made a living from replacing old barrel hoops with new ones.

In the Edo period, there were merchants who specialized in the buying and selling of the masses of barrels circulating. In fact this was a major business at that time, and since the merchants would have bought barrels in various conditions of disrepair, I imagine that they would have employed fulltime coopers to carry out all the necessary refurbishing.

According to a historian' s survey, the sake barrels being shipped from the Osaka and Kyoto area were all of a certain size that was much larger than the size used in Edo, and so it seems likely that Edo barrel merchants also used coopers to dismantle such large barrels and turn them into the smaller size used in Edo.
- source : Eisuke Ishikawa : Sustainability in EDO -


. Doing Business in Edo - 江戸の商売 .

. okechoo, okemachi、桶町 Okecho, "Bucket district" in Edo .
Many bucket makers lived in this area.
hibachi 火鉢 brazier


quote
A cooper is a person trained to make wooden casks, barrels, vats, buckets, tubs, troughs and other staved containers from timber that was usually heated or steamed to make it pliable. Journeymen coopers also traditionally made wooden implements, such as rakes and wooden-bladed shovels.

In addition to wood, other materials, such as iron, were used in the manufacturing process.
source : wikipedia



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- ABC - List of oke from the Prefectures


................................................................................ Akita 秋田県



- quote -
Akitasugi oke taru 秋田杉桶樽 Akita Cedar Cooperage
Elements of tubs dating from the 15th and 16th centuries have been discovered at the former site of Akita castle. Records dating from the beginning of the 17th century kept by one of the old families of the Akita clan, make it clear that tubs were being used at a sake maker within the present-day district of Ogatsu-cho.
There are also 19th century examples of different types of barrels and tubs preserved by the Aoyagi family of another district, Kakunodate-cho. They have a coating of lacquer and both copper and bamboo bands were used, and the shapes are the ones which are followed today.
The wood from natural stands of local cedar has a fine straight grain and besides having a wonderful scent, it is not prone to distortion as the wood moves so little. The superb quality of the wood contributes to the warmth of this craft and brings both charm and a sense of quality to the lives of those that use these tubs and barrels. The scent of the wood is especially contributive to the value of such items as Japanese bath tubs, tubs for sushi, beer tankards, sake flasks, and rice tubs. Flower vases, too, benefit from the wood in a different way, as do candy tubs and umbrella stands.
- source : kougeihin.jp.e... -


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. Legends and Tales from Japan 伝説 - Introduction .



................................................................................. Iwate 岩手県
岩手郡 Iwate district

. Yamanba, Yamauba 山姥 old mountain hag .
Once upon a time, a bucket maker went to the mountains to cut bamboo and then made a fire, when an old mountain hag appeared. She could read all the thoughts of the bucket maker but he just kept roasting the bamboo when a spark flew over to her. So she cried and said she can not trust humans any more and never came by.



................................................................................. Kochi 高知県

. Yamachichi stealing the luggage and the horse .




................................................................................. Kyoto 京都府
京都市 Kyoto city

a Tanuki named 八兵衛狸 Hachibei at temple 建仁寺 Kennin-Ji
The wicked Tanuki Hachibei from the Temple Kennin-Ji often took just one geta 下駄 wooden sandal from a visitor.
He often ordered a lot of food from the local Sobaya 蕎麦屋 Buckwheat shop.
Around 1897, the owner of the bucket maker shop caught the Tanuki and threw him into the river 加茂川 Kamogawa.

. tanuki 狸 - mujina 狢 - racoon dog, badger legends .




................................................................................. Nagasaki 長崎県

赤毛の牡牛 The Bull with red hair
Once a bucket maker was walking back home late at night when something huge appeared right in front of him. He almost lost his lantern and saw a bull with red hair standing there. He wanted to run away but could not, so he crossed his legs and sat down on the ground. He said
生あるものなら家に来い - If you are a living being, come to my home.
Thus the bull disappeared, but the bucket maker felt a great chill.
In this area, a Tanuki often poses as something else.

. Legends about the Red Cow, Red Bull 赤牛と伝説 aka-ushi, akaushi .




................................................................................. Nara 奈良県
月ヶ瀬村 Tsukigase village

. koyasu Jizoo 子安地蔵 Jizo as child protector .
Once a group of bucket makers walked past a hall of Jizo Bosatsu and bent their head in prayer. The wife of one of them became pregnant soon after.
After that a kojiki 乞食 beggar slept in the hall for Jizo, when a priest came by on a horse, stepped down and told him that a child had been born in 田山 Tayama. When the begger went there to see if this was true, he came to the home of the bucket maker.
Since then the Jizo was called Koyasu Jizo.



................................................................................. Niigata 新潟県

meshi kuwanu nyoobo 飯食わぬ女房 a wife who does not eat
Once upon a time, a bucket maker said he wanted a wife who does not eat rice. A man came with his daughter and the bucket maker got her as wife. But she was a monster with a mouth at the back of her head, so the bucket maker chased her away.
He made a large bucket and put some hyootan 瓢箪 gourds and rice grains inside, which he had put on needles. The wife, which was actually hebi 蛇 a serpent, came with her children and ate the grains, but they got stuck with the needles and died.




................................................................................. Okayama 岡山県

komebitsu 米櫃 rice stocker
Once along the beach in the South, a rice stocker and some money was floating along but nobody came to pick it up.
The local people say this comes from shipwrecked boats and if someone picks it up, he will be cursed.




................................................................................. Saitama 埼玉県
所沢市 Tokorozawa city

fukunekozuka 福猫塚 mound of the auspicious cat
Once upon a time,
a bucket maker named Kiheiji had been keeping a cat. But one day she did a creepy cat dance with a lantern, Kiheiji thought she must be a monster and chased her away.
The cat was picked up by the restaurant 和泉屋 Izumiya and there she begun to wink to people passing the highway. This soon became popular and the restaurant became quite rich.
The cat was called 福猫 Fukuneko and when she died, a mound was erected in her honor.

- quote -

昔、所沢に喜平次と言う桶職人が住んでいました。
The Okeya was called 喜平次 Kiheiji.
- reference source : hmika/Fukunekozuka... -





................................................................................. Shizuoka 静岡県
庵原郡 Ibara sistrict 両河内村 Ryogochi village

komebitsu 米櫃 rice stocker - and
. kudagitsune クダ狐 / 管狐 "Pipe-Fox" helper .




................................................................................. Tokushima 徳島県

yamachichi 山チチ / 山地乳 Yamachichi yokai monster
The Yamachichi is so big it can fly from mountain to mountain.
On a foggy morning, when the bucket maker was busy working, a Yamachichi appeared, it had only one eye and one leg.
The Yamachichi could read the secret thoughts of the bucket maker and he became quite afraid. He kept working and a splinter of bamboo hit the case of Yamachichi.
"You are doing quite strange things!" and the Yamachichi run away never to come back.

- similar to the legend from Iwate above.

- quote -
Yamachichi ...
DIET: life force (in the form of the breath of sleeping humans)
ORIGIN: The name yamachichi only appears in Ehon Hyakumonogatari, an Edo period yokai bestiary, and thus very little is known about them. ...
- source : yokai.com/yamachichi... -


source : shigege.blog89.fc2.com...


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- reference : nichibun yokai database 妖怪データベース -

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. Regional Folk Toys from Japan .

. Japan - Shrines and Temples .


. Tohoku after the BIG earthquake March 11, 2011

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- - - #okeya #hibachi #cooper #bucket #bucketmaker - - - - -
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2/24/2019

tsumugi silk pongee weaving

[ . BACK to DARUMA MUSEUM TOP . ]
. Legends and Tales from Japan 伝説 - Introduction .
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tsumugi 紬 pongee, silk weaving, silk fabric
with a thread of silk spun from the textured floss of leftover silk cocoons.

. orimono 織物 weaving .
- Introduction -

- quote -
Tsumugi (pongee)
is a silk fabric woven from the floss remaining in the silkworm cocoon after the full threads have been removed. By spinning these broken strands together silkworm farmers created a fabric for for their own use. Today tsumugi is highly prized and one of the most expensive kimono fabrics despite its humble origins.
- Characteristics
Tsumugi was originally spun, woven, and sewn into a kimono by one person for the use of her household, so there are many distinct regional variations. However, all tsumugi can be readily identified by its characteristic slubs and sheen. The slubs (rough lines in the weaving) are created by spinning the silk. Initially tsumugi fabric is very stiff, due to the starch applied during spinning, but the more times it is worn and washed, the softer it becomes. Very old tsumugi is as soft as silk fabric woven from untwisted threads.
- Manufacture
Broken threads left inside the silk cocoon are collected by the farmer. These are degummed in a hot water bath with sodium bicarbonate (baking soda) and sulfurous acid (a mild bleach). After rinsing, they are hung to dry out of direct sunlight. After drying, the silk floss is placed in a bath of ground sesame seeds and water. The oil from the sesame seeds makes it easier to draw individual threads to be spun.
The floss is handspun.
The spinner uses saliva to adhere the new threads to the old ones. This produces the characteristic sheen and stiffness of tsumugi. After spinning, the thread is dyed and then woven into tsumugi. The most popular patterns include shima, ichimatsu, and kasuri. After weaving, the fabric is steamed to set the dyes and then made into kimono.
- source : immortalgeisha.com/wiki... -


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- ABC - List of pongee from the Prefectures


................................................................................ Ibaraki

Yuuki tsumugi, Yūki-tsumugi 結城紬 Yuki pongee


- quote -
1. Produced
in Yuki City, Ibaraki Prefecture.
2. Characteristics:
The best "Tsumugi" fabrics used for clothing, designated as an "Important Intangible Cultural Property. "The silk fabric which is hand spun from the floss is dyed manually so that splash patterns will come out on the fabric after it is woven. They are hand woven in "Jibata"(a loom with no legs) and the designs are small crosses of splash patterns. Warm, light, tough and free from wrinkles, the fabric does not fade or discolor easily, but increases its luster the more frequently it is washed and stretched. This fabric is of such good quality that it is said that "Yuki Tsumugi" should first be worn as a night wear and then used as a going out wear. It takes 10 to 15 days to weave a plain fabric and 30 to 45 days to weave a small patterned fabric for a piece of cloth required for an adult garment (36 cm width and 840 cm length).
3. Uses:
Clothing.
4. History:
The pongee was well known as "Hitachi Ashiginu" ( a fabric woven with thick and rough silk threads) in the Heian Period and as "Hitachi Tsumugi" in the Kamakura Period.
In 1602 the name was changed to "Yuki Tsumugi" as it became an item for presenting to the Shogun. After that, weavers from Ueda (Nagano Prefecture) were invited, resulting in an improvement of the quality with the technique used in weaving stripes. The production was a side job for farmers in the middle of the Edo Period.
At first, only the plain and striped fabrics were produced, but the striped "Kasuri" was invented in 1866, the splash patterns made of both warp and weft in 1873 and crepe pongee in the early Taisho Period.
The fabric was well known in the old days and quoted in a poem in "Manyoshu"(Ten Thousand Leaves), an anthology of 4,516 poems, compiled in late Nara or early Heian Period, around 800.

筑波ねの 新桑まよの 衣あれど 君がみけしし あやに着ほしも
I have woven a cloth
With silk threads spun from
New cocoons of Mt. Tsukuba.
Would that it be a pretty costume
Worn by my loved one.


- source : kimono.or.jp/dictionary... -




................................................................................ Ishikawa 石川県

Ushikubi tsumugi 牛首紬 Ushikubi pongee



- quote -
1. Produced in 石川県石川郡白峰村
Shiraminemura Ishikawagun, Ishikawa Prefecture.
2. Characteristics:
Silk fabrics: white pongee and striped pongee, handwoven with home spun threads. Because it is so tough, it can pull out a nail when hooked, the fabric is also called "Kugi Nuki Tsumugi"(nail pulling pongee).
3. Uses:
Clothing, coats, sashes, neckties, pouches, etc.
4. History:
This district started producing silk from olden days because of flourishing sericulture and hand spinning techniques. It is said that the origin of the fabric was in the years after the "Heiji Revolt "(civil war) in 1159. First woven as side jobs for farmers, it was marketable as "Ushikubi Tsumugi" and "Hakusan Tsumugi" in the Genroku Era (1688-1704). It was industrialized in the late Meiji Period and flourished in the late Taisho Peiod. Since the Showa Period, however, production died out and only 2 factories are producing it today.
-source : kimono.or.jp/dictionary...-





................................................................................ Kagoshima 鹿児島県  

Ooshima tsumugi 大島紬 Amami Oshima pongee


Mostly made in 奄美大島 Amami Oshima Island.
- reference : amamioshimatsumugi.com... -




................................................................................ Nagano 長野県

Shinshu tsumugi 信州紬 Shinshu pongee


- quote -
The origins of Shinshu Tsumugi go back to a silk cloth called あしぎぬ ashiginu that was woven in the Nara period (710-794). Because of the rivalry and encouragement that the clans in the province of Shinshu were given, sericulture was very popular and the production of pongee throughout the province flourished, and every year large quantities of cloth were dispatched to Kyoto.
The production of this cloth then fell into gradual decline by the 1920s, only enough was being made to keep the skills associated with this cloths alive. After World War II, great efforts were made to revive the fortunes of this cloth not only by the prefectural authorities but by local authorities and communities, and production once again flourished throughout the region.
The making of cloth for top quality kimono followed and served to raise people's awareness of this fine cloth. Most of the cloth produced in various colors and patters is for kimono or obi. One extremely special cloth is woven from a silk obtained exclusively from wild silk worms.
- source : kougeihin.jp.e...117 -

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Ueda tsumugi上田紬 Ueda pongee


- quote -
Ueda Tsumugi is a traditional woven silk fabric popular since Edo times.
At studio workshops in Ueda, craftsmen continue the tradition today. There you can see some of the kimonos, mufflers, purses and other articles made from Ueda Tsumugi, as well as see some being made. And for those who want to try weaving an item themselves, you can try your hand at a weaving loom to make your own original Ueda Tsumugi souvenir.
- source : go-nagano.net/shisetsu... -




................................................................................ Niigata 新潟県

Ojiya tsumugi 小千谷紬 Ojiya pongee


- quote -
Pongee was first produced here in the middle of the Edo period (1600-1868), when sericulture began. By the end of the same era, production had increased to such an extent that silk merchants came to do business from places which had their own flourishing weaving industry such as Kyoto and Joshu, the area that now corresponds to present-day Gunma prefecture.
Ojiya Chijimi techniques were used to produce a pongee suitable for home use woven from silk yarn reeled from leftover cocoons. The existence of this pongee was overshadowed by Ojiya Chijimi but production of a pongee actually started in earnest at the beginning of Showa (1926-1989).
The basis for today's pongee was perfected after a number of improvements were made to the pongee yarn.
Because the yarn used for this pongee cloth is reeled from cocoons, the threads have an interesting unevenness and make a light warm cloth. Various folk-craft designs are used and kimono of this colorful cloth provide plenty of opportunity for elegant dressing. The cloth is now also being used for interior items.
- source : kougeihin.jp.e...113 -

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- quote -
Shiozawa tsumugi 塩沢紬 Shiozawa Pongee
The history of weaving in the Shiozawa area is very long and an example of a linen cloth --now Echigo jofu 越後上布 Echigo linen-- woven during the Nara period (710-794) is preserved in the Shosoin Repository in Nara. The skills and techniques used to weave this linen cloth were adopted for the weaving of a silk cloth that became Shiozawa Tsumugi and was first woven during the Edo period (1600-1868).
This cloth is characterized by a very particular sense of quality and refinement derived from its ikat patterns which are composed of fine crosses called kagasuri 蚊絣 --"mosquito ikat"--and a kikkogasuri 亀甲絣 of box-like pattern, both achieved by tying bundles of thread and rubbing in the dyestuff before weaving. The cloth is used exclusively for kimono.
- source : kougeihin.jp... 111 -



................................................................................ Okinawa 沖縄

. Kumejima tsumugi 久米島紬 Kumejima pongee .






................................................................................ Shiga 滋賀県

amiori tsumugi, ami-ori 網織紬 Amiori pongee
"weaving with fishing nets"



Silk has been used since the mid-Edo period. The strings were used for fishing nets. When the nets broke, they strings were used for weaving cloth.
The material has a delicate, but rough touch.

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Hatasho tsumugi 秦荘紬 Hatasho pongee


made from left-over silk yarn.
A traditional craft of Hikone.




................................................................................ Yamagata 山形県

Oitama tsumugi 置賜紬 Oitama pongee
also called
Yonezawa tsumugi 米沢紬 Yonezawa pongee



- quote -
While dating back to the 8th century, the weaving of this cloth did not become firmly established in this area of Yamagata Prefecture until the beginning of the 17th century. This was when 上杉景勝 Uesugi Keisho Kagekatsu, the lord of the fief, encouraged its weaving.
There are a number of individual cloths being produced. There is the traditionally woven 白鷹板締小絣 shirataka itajime kogasuri, an unassuming ikat cloth and another small motif ikat called 米琉板締小絣 yoneryu itajime kogasuri; and a weft ikat and another with ikat threads in both the warp and weft. Safflower is just one of the natural dyes used for a pongee cloth using these dyestuffs. Inevitably, it is the handmade look of these cloths which is now attracting much attention among consumers.
Oitama Tsumugi is actually a generic name for six individual cloths, namely
yoneryu itajime kogasuri, shirataka itajime kogasuri, yokosogasuri, heiyougasuri, kusakizome tsumugi, and benibana tsumugi.
All are yarn dyed and plain woven.
- source : kougeihin.jp.e... -


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. . . CLICK here for Photos !
. Reference - tsumugi pongee.

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. Legends and Tales from Japan 伝説 - Introduction .

................................................................................. Kagoshima 鹿児島県
大島郡 Oshima district

ikiryo 生霊
Aさんが夕方に紬の着物を着て浜の方へ行っていた。それを見た人が、Aさんは身重なのにどうしてだろうと訝しんだ。その三日後、Aさんは出産時に急死した。イキマブリ(生霊)は実際にいるものだ。

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- reference : nichibun yokai database 妖怪データベース -

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- - - - - Haiku and Senryu - - - - -

冬の日や鵜匠の羽織る黒紬
fuyu no hi ya ushoo no haoru kuro-tsumugi

this winter day -
the black pongee coat
of the cormorant fisher


殿村莵絲子 Tonomura Toshiko (1908 - 2000)



. ukai 鵜飼 (うかい) cormorant fishing .

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Hida tsumugi 飛騨紬 Hida pongee
Haiku collection by 前田普羅 Maeda Fura
- text source : national diet library -

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. Join the MINGEI group on facebook ! .  



. Regional Folk Toys from Japan .

. Japan - Shrines and Temples .


. Tohoku after the BIG earthquake March 11, 2011

[ . BACK to WORLDKIGO . TOP . ]
[ . BACK to DARUMA MUSEUM TOP . ]
- - - #tsumugi #pongee #silkweaving - - - - -
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