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10/08/2011

Karakuri mechanical dolls INFO

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Karakuri ningyoo からくり人形 mechanical dolls
mechanische Puppen

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Karakuri ningyō (からくり人形) are mechanized puppets or automaton from Japan from the 17th century to 19th century. The word karakuri means "mechanisms" or "trick".
In Japanese ningyō is written as two separate characters, meaning person and shape. It may be translated as puppet, but also by doll or effigy. The dolls' gestures provided a form of entertainment.

Three main types of karakuri exist:

Butai karakuri (舞台からくり, stage karakuri) were used in theatre.
Zashiki karakuri (座敷からくり, tatami room karakuri) were small and used in homes.
Dashi karakuri (山車からくり, festival car karakuri) were used in religious festivals, where the puppets were used to perform reenactments of traditional myths and legends, standing of festival floats (dashi).

They influenced the Noh, Kabuki and Bunraku theatre.

Zashiki karakuri

The most common example today of a zashiki karakuri mechanism is a tea-serving robot, which starts moving forward when a cup of tea is placed on the plate in its hands. It was used in a situation when a host wanted to treat a guest in a recreational way at a tea ceremony. It moves in a straight line for a set distance, moving its feet as if walking, and then bows its head.
This signals that the tea is for drinking, and the doll stops when the cup is removed.
When it is replaced, the robot raises its head, turns around and returns to where it came from. It is typically powered by a wound spring made of whalebone, and the actions are controlled by a set of cams and levers.
source : Wikipedia


Mechanisms of a tea serving doll
The inner mechanisms of KARAKURI dolls are illustrated in "KARAKURI-ZUI", a machine book of the Edo era. The lower left diagram is a whole view of a tea serving doll in the "KARAKURI-ZUI", and the right diagram is an inner view. The inside of a real doll seems to have been made with a wood, a thread, and a whisker of a whale (materials of a spring).



- - - - - The doll does the following movements:

1 - A spring is wound up first, and then a doll is in the state that stands still.
2 - If a master puts a tea cup on the tray which the doll supports, the doll will begin to advance and the legs of the doll begins to move forward and backward.
3 - If the doll comes in front of a visitor, the head of the doll will lean forward, that is, the doll bows.
4 - Then, if a visitor takes up a teacup, the doll will stop, and the leg motion will also stop.
5 - If a visitor drinks up tea and puts the teacup back on the tray again, the doll will rotate 180 degrees.
6 - Then, the doll stands with the head straight.
7 - The doll begins to advance toward the place where the master is, i.e., a starting point. The legs of the doll also move again forward and backward.
8 - If the doll comes back to the master and the master takes away an empty teacup from the tray, the doll will stop moving and the legs also.
- source : museum.kyoto-u.ac.jp -

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Tanaka Hisashige 田中久重 (1799 - 1881)
Karakuri Gi'emon からくり儀右衛門 Kakakuri Giemon


Born in Kurume, Kyushu. Later he opened a shop in Edo, 機巧堂(からくりどう Karakurido, and invented all kinds of useful things that people came to ask him for.
His "tea-serving doll" had a special stopping mechanism to stop right in front of the customer.



His masterpiece, a clock for all times 万年時計,
万年自鳴鐘 Mannen Jimeisho - lit. Ten-Thousand Year Self-ringing Bell

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a Japanese rangaku scholar, engineer and inventor during the Bakumatsu and early Meiji period in Japan. In 1875 he founded what became the Toshiba Corporation. He has been called the "Thomas Edison of Japan" or Karakuri Giemon.
..... While in Saga, Tanaka designed and built Japan’s first domestically made steam locomotive and steam warship.
..... After his death in 1881, his son founded Tanaka Engineering Works (田中製造所 Tanaka Seizōsho). The company changed its name after Tanaka’s death to Shibaura Engineering Works (芝浦製造所 Shibaura Seizōsho) in 1904, and after a merger in 1939 with Tokyo Denki became Tokyo Shibaura Denki, more commonly known today as Toshiba.
- reference source : wikipedia -

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chinchin uma guu チンチン馬グヮー small horses



. Folk Toys from Okinawa .

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Edo Kakakuri Zuan 江戸からくり図案



. Trick Pictures of the Edo Time .
Tokyo

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Food and mechanical dolls




soba saru そば猿 monkeys making soba buckwheat noodles
From Nagano, Narai Town 奈良井

Narai is an old postal town along the Nakasendo road and these monkeys were favorite souvenirs.
Narai-juku on the Nakasendo, Nagano
- source : japanvisitor.com -

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kometsukiguruma, kometsuki kuruma 米つき車 / 米搗車 wheels for pounding rice

A wooden toy version of the important tool of rice farmers. The wheels turn around moving a mallet 杵.
Another version is a simple toy where the child can move the mallet with its hands (te-oshiguruma 手押し車).

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Aichi, Toshogu 東照宮

. WASHOKU - toys with food .

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Tokushima town 徳島市


source : colle-vill.com/chigo
aitsuki okura 藍搗きお蔵 shed to pound Ai indigo
A Kura with a white roof above the three mallets, which make the sound
katakata カタカタ when the toy is pulled.

. Tokushima town 徳島市 and Indigo .

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Wakayama town 和歌山市


source : asahi-net.or.jp - gangu
komekachiguruma コメカチグルマ in the local dialect.
The character for rice (kome 米)is written as decoration. It has three mallets to move.
This toy is not made any more in our modern times.


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Koobe ningyoo, Kobe Ningyo 神戸人形 mechanical dolls from Kobe, Kobe Dolls
. . . . . man drinking sake
. . . . . man cutting a water melon
From Hyogo

. Washoku - Food and Toys .

. . . CLICK here for Kobe Doll Photos !

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. Kurama karakuri gangu 鞍馬のからくり玩具 mechanical dolls from Kurama .
Kyoto

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namazu osae matsuri 鯰押さえ祭りの catfish subpressing festival

. namazu osae 鯰押さえ subpressing a catfish .

Gifu, Oogaki, Ogaki town 大垣

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Nagoya karakuri ningyoo 名古屋 からくり人形 from Aichi



"Dashi" floats at Arimatsu
"Shiranami Gonin Otoko" at Misono Dori
Oda Nobunaga, Toyotomi Hideyoshi and Tokugawa Ieyasu at Wakamiya Odori
"Muneharu Ranman"
Osu Banshoji Temple / Urashima Taro /

Nagoya City Sightseeing Information
- source : canyou.co.jp/nagoya/karakuri -


and as toys for children - Ushiwaka and Benkei 牛若 弁慶



The head of the toys is made from clay, the robes from strong washi paper.
These two also appear on the festival float of the Toshogu Shrine.

. Ushiwaka Minamoto no Yoshitsune 源の義経 (1159 - 1189) .
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Tamaya Shobei and Karakuri Float Parades in Owari
... This was during the period (1730-1739) when Tokugawa Muneharu was in power as the head of the Owari clan. Muneharu's policy of supporting festivals and other spectacles thus fostered the first Tamaya Shobei.
Splendid floats were displayed each year in the Tōshōgū Festival during the years of Tokugawa Muneharu's reign. This festival was a source of stimulation for the residents of Owari and led to the creation of Karakuri float parades through the region, spurring competition between the province's craftsmen.
During an era in which austerity was enforced in other regions of Japan through Yoshimune's frugality edict, the Owari clan's territory, with Nagoya at its heart, protected the legacy of Takeda Karakuri, Yamamoto Ichiza, and others. Thanks to parade float Karakuri culture, this heritage was preserved for future generations.
The vigor of Karakuri parade float culture in Nagoya and the surrounding area has nurtured and sustained the Tamaya Shobei family for nine generations.
They are the only Karakuri doll maker household of their kind in Japan.
- source : karakuri-tamaya.jp/en -

. Tokugawa Muneharu 徳川宗春 (1696 - 1764) .
- more Karakuri clocks in his honor

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Another mechanical toy from Nagoya is the
mawari nezumi 回り鼠 three mice that turn round and round



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Osaka neko to nezumi 大阪 猫と鼠 cat and mouse from Osaka



Osaka has produced quite a few humorous dolls.
A clay cat is sitting on the wooden box. If you pull the lid of the box, it opens and a clay mouse comes out. If you now push the lid toward the mouse, the mouse hides again in the box.


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Otsu Festival Floats




During the first day, the karakuri mechanical puppets are removed from the floats and displayed on street level. The karakuri ningyo puppets are a major highlight of the floats and festival. The puppets perform on the floats during the procession.

. Ootsu Matsuri 大津祭 Otsu festival,Otsu matsuri .
Shiga

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Takayama karakuri ningyoo 高山からくり人形
For the shrine festival floats of Sakurayama Hachimangu
October 9, 10
桜山八幡宮, Hachiman Matsuri 八幡祭
The Takayama fall festival is one of the three largest festivals in Japan.



. Folk Toys from Gifu .



quote
The Takayama Festivals 高山祭 Takayama Matsuri
The festivals are famous for the large ornate floats, or yatai, which roam around the city at night.
Puppets
The puppets or marionettes are made of wood, silk and brocade or embroidered cloth. They are operated by strings and push rods from within the yatai.
“Karakuri (mechanical) puppet plays performed on a stage are superb”.
The puppets like the Yatai represent the skilled craftsmen of the area. The puppets or The three marionettes “on Hotei Tai (the god of fortune)” require 9 puppet masters to manipulate the 36 strings which make the marionettes move in a lifelike manner, with gestures, turns and other movements.

A problem with the puppets are parts needed to repair the puppets. The springs in the puppets are made of Right whale baleen and cannot be replaced with steel springs or the baleen of other whales. Other materials used to make the springs cannot duplicate the movements of the springs made with Right whale baleen.
source : Wikipedia


observance kigo for late spring
Takayama matsuri 高山祭 Takayama Festival
..... Sanoo matsuri 山王祭
April 14, 15
at the shrine Hie Jinja 日枝神社
. . . CLICK here for Photos !



摩訶不思議 からくり人形 今の世も
maka fushigi karakuri ningyoo ima no yo mo

what a mystery !
these mechanical dolls
in our day and time


siteim
With a photo from the festival in 2007:
source : shashin-haiku.jp



. Ema 絵馬 votive tablets .
with machanical dolls from the parade


. OBSERVANCES – SPRING SAIJIKI .

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. Teri-furi ningyoo 照り降り人形 "weather forecasting dolls" .

Ema from the Toshogu shrine, this time with the parade of floats with mechanical dolls.
. ema 絵馬 votive tablets .


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undoo ningyoo 運動人形 undo - dolls doing exercises







They stand on an arched pedestal, with their feel on two metal sticks in the frame. The back is attached to a weight with another metal wire. So they can move back and forth.
They were popular around 1888, for example the soldier blowing a trumpet.

. Folk Toys from Kagawa - Takamatsu .


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. . . CLICK here for Photos !

. Reference .



karakuri netsuke "からくり根付"


. . . CLICK here for Photos !

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Karakuri-Ya

Karakuri dolls were the first automata in Japan.
Haramitsu Hanya / Hannya 般若 
dan-kaeri : somersault doll
even a set to "do it yourself"
source : karakuriya.com


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. Shuten-dōji. Shuten Doji 酒呑童子 a Sake Yokai Monster .




酒呑童子のからくり人形 from 国上山

After the gentle doll face has drunk one sip of sake, the face changes to the oni demon mask.

- source : mojiok.com -


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karakuri DARUMA からくりだるま









source : shop.yumetenpo.jp

Daruma Yakko Coffee Mug つくいからくり絵マグカップ(だるま/やっこ)


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Daruma changes his facial expression






source : kodaruma .

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回り鼠 (Aichi)
牛若弁慶 (Aichi)
でんでん太鼓 (Aichi)
餅つき兎 (Aichi)
source : 全国のからくり玩具

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Watch it perform on video:
KARAKURI AUTOMATA WRITER JAPAN
writing kotobuki 寿 celebrating long life
source : www.youtube.com


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人形に餅を売らせて夕涼
ningyoo ni mochi o urasete yuusuzumi

he makes the doll
sell rice cakes -
evening coolness


. Kobayashi Issa 小林一茶 in Edo .

There was a "Doll Street" in Edo, where the mechanical dolls were sold.
Ningyoo Doori 人形通り, Ningyoochoo Doori 人形町通り 

- Some Photos from Tokyo Ningyo Road -



ningyoo ni mochi o urasete yuusuzumi

a moving doll
sells the shop's rice cakes
in the evening cool


This hokku is from the 9th month (October) of 1818, when Issa was traveling near his hometown.

Read the full comment by Chris here:
. Chris Drake - Kobayashi Issa .





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. Ayatsuri ningyoo 操り人形 marionette .


. Regional Folk Toys from Japan .


. Tohoku after the BIG earthquake March 11, 2011

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- #karakuri -  
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4 comments:

Anonymous said...

Gabi, Thanks for sharing...
I love the tea serving robot! He's splendid!
p.

Gabi Greve said...

Visit Hida Takayama (Official), Japan

more information of facebook

http://www.facebook.com/Visit.Hidatakayama?sk=wall

Gabi Greve - Darumapedia said...

details about
zashiki 座敷 guest room, drawing room, sitting room

Anonymous said...

Japanese "Karakuri Ningyō" automata, with subtitles -- The most famous Japanese "Karakuri" automata that have made 200 years ago. The "Karakuri" automata is the traditional handcraft of Edo period(1603-1868). Their movements are caused by the power of springs. Japan boasts to the world the ultimate reproduction of "Karakuri" automata. The "Karakuri" automata that bend arrow has been achieved by Hisasige Tanaka, the first president of Toshiba. Published on Aug 26, 2012.

映像のからくり人形は、東芝の創業者である田中久重氏が、
1820年代に製作したとされる江戸からくりの傑作、弓曳き童子。
からくりの動作はぜんまいとカム、レバー、糸によって制御されおり、
4本の矢を自動的に射ることができるという、高性能な作り。
「からくり儀右衛門」と呼ばれた田中久重氏はからくり人形の他にも、
万年自鳴鐘、懐中燭台、無尽灯、蒸気機関車の模型、
明治期には電話機(試作)など様々な物を考案・製作されています。

田中久重氏は8才のころに「開かずの硯箱」を作り周囲の人々を驚愕させたそうですが、
氏の作品には、200年近く経った今なお、海外の人をも驚愕させる力があるようでした。

: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=i5zYK9FxORI
.