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2/13/2017

tsuiki hammered metal ware

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tsuiki 鎚起, tsuikin 鎚金 hammered metal ware, metalware

Tsuiki means shaping metal by hand hammering。


tankin 鍛金 hammering 
The term tankin is used in Japan today to refer to a range of different techniques that broadly divide into tanzo, tsuiki, shibori and bankin.

Tanzo (forging) is the technique used for iron. The other techniques are used for gold, silver, copper and alloys. When a solid mass of metal is hammered out, the technique is known as tsuiki.
Shibori and bankin are techniques used on sheet metal that has been prepared in advance by mechanical means.

Bankin involves the cutting and bending of sheet metal, whereas shibori, which allows the creation of freely conceived forms, involves hammering. Most metals harden when they are hammered and become soft and pliable when they are heated and slowly cooled, a process known as annealing (yakinamashi). These properties are made use of in all tankin techniques except bankin.
- source - nihon-kogeikai.com - 日本工芸会 -

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tankin 緞金 beating gold
Also called tanzoo 緞造, uchimono 打物, tsuikin 鎚金 and kaji 鍛冶.
A basic metalwork technique for hammering out a metal lump with a metal or wooden hammer, beating a metal sheet thin from the front and back, or pressing metal to give it form. Used since the Japanese first started to use metals in the Yayoi period, and employed at first for gold, silver and copper, then for bronze, nickel, brass, iron and tin.
Tankin techniques are divided into categories of tsuikin, bankin 板金 and oshidashi 押出.
Tsuikin (hammer relief) is beating sheet metal from the front and back to give three dimensional form or relief patterns.
In the Kofun period it was used on long swords and harnesses; it is common on Buddhist altar fittings since the Nara period; in the Muromachi period it is seen on fittings of helmets and armor; and in the Meiji period Yamada Sobi 山田宗美 utilized it for sculpture.
Bankin (sheet metal process) is the folding and soldering of metal sheets to create three-dimensional forms such as reliquaries, sutra boxes and hanging lanterns.
Oshidashi (extrusion) uses a thin metal sheet on a template and is beaten from the top to transfer the shape; it can be utilized for mass production. In the Nara period, it was used widely for *oshidashibutsu 押出仏 (extruded Buddhist image) and the *sentaibutsu 千体仏 (thousand Buddhist images) inside the Tamamushi shrine *Tamamushi no zushi 玉虫厨子 in Houryuuji 法隆寺.
It requires a kanatoko 鉄床 (anvil), *kanazuchi 鉄鎚 (iron hammer), *kizuchi 木槌 (a mallet), ategane 当金 (dolly), *tagane 鏨 (graver) and yasuri 鑢 (file) to make *butsuzou 仏像 (Buddhist image), butsugu 仏具 (altar fittings), dora 銅鑼 (gongs), bugu 武具 (armory), *kooro 香炉 (an incense burner), pots, dishes and kettles.
- source : JAANUS -

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tankin no iroha 緞金のいろは the basics of beating metal
- reference source : akaitaro.com/tankin-

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- ABC - List of tsuiki from the Prefectures

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................................................................................ Niigata 新潟 燕市  

Tsubame Tsuiki Dooki 燕鎚起銅器 Tsuiki Doki : hammered metal ware from Tsubame town
Reference mentions bronze, tin or copper as the main material used.



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Tsubame Tsuiki Coppereware
- - - - - Description
Tsubame Tsuiki Coppereware are metalwork made in an area around Tsubame City, Niigata Prefecture. As traditional craftwork originating in the mid-Edo Period, Tsubame Tsuiki Coppereware have been produced in the form of kettles, and the like, by using copper extracted from the region’s Mt. Yahiko.
Tsuiki means shaping metal by hand hammering, and in this case one piece of malleable copper plate will be extended using a range of traditional skills and techniques. Characteristics of Tsubame Tsuiki Coppereware include a shiny appearance created by tsuiki performed by a master artisan, and with time the texture of copper increases in attractiveness with long-term use and proper care. In addition to kettles, other beautiful Tsubame Tsuiki Coppereware every day articles include vases, water pitchers, teapots, and the like. And apart from looking so fine, tea poured from a copper teapot is said to have a milder taste due to the action of metal ions. Each product is made by several hundred thousand hammer blows making the outer side so smooth it looks like china.
Tsubame Tuiki Coppereware was designated as a traditional craft by the Minister of Economy, Trade and Industry in 1981.
- - - - - HISTORY
Tsubame City, Niigata Prefecture, famous for its production of metalwork, has a history starting from the making of Japanese nails in around the early Edo Period. Tsubame Tsuiki Doki originates with artisans from Sendai visiting Tsubame City sometime in the mid-Edo Period and introducing the copperware techniques of tsuiki; the hammering techniques of that time have been handed down for well over 200 years. Tsubame City is currently the only area producing tsuiki copperware in the country. The main reason for the development of the production of tsuiki copperware in the region is the high-grade copper ore extracted from neighboring Mt. Yahiko. Tsubame Tsuiki Coppereware over time developed techniques beyond the simple making of kettles and in the Meiji Period adopted metal carving techniques suited for more artistic crafts. Copperware, such as teapots, vases, and art work, which become more attractive over a long period of time has been loved for many years, and has become indispensable in daily life.
A vase of Tsubame Tsuiki Coppereware was even dedicated to the Emperor Meiji in 1894.
- - - - - PROCESS
1. Hammering
The production processes of hammered copperware vary depending on the shape of article to be made. The following explanation describes the making of the popular kettle. There are four basic processes: copper plate cutting, plate shaping, decorative work, and finishing. In the first process, a copper plate is cut to size. Hammering is then performed on a side surface part. The copper plate is placed on a wooden table exclusively used for this process, and the side surface part is hammered with a wooden hammer. Varying indentations on the wooden table are important for creating different sections of the kettle, such as a side surface or the spout. The strength and angle of hammering need to be considered depending on the rigidity and malleability of the copper plate. This process requires a very high level of skill, and is a true test of the artisan’s abilities.
2. Uchishibori (Thinning)
Next, the copper plate is hammered and made thinner. The copper plate is placed on a metal tool called a torikuchi (L shaped stake). This tool, which is also called an ategane (stake), is used for a variety of techniques and purposes depending on the item being made, and when used is inserted in an agariban (wooden table) made from Japanese zelkova. The copper plate needs to be hammered many times in order to make a kettle spout; a task requiring much perseverance and concentration.



3. Annealing
Continuously hammered copper plate becomes gradually harder, and needs to be temporarily softened in a furnace at around 650°C. Hammering and heating are repeated many times until completion.
4. Shaping
Any irregularities and deformation on the body are adjusted and balanced to give a beautiful shape. The surface becomes shinier as it is repeatedly hammered.
5. Metal carving
After the product is shaped, the surface is processed. A detailed design is drawn, engraved, and carved with a tool called a tagane (cold chisel). Inlaying is sometimes carried out to overlay the product with gold and silver decoration. Metal carving adds brightness and elegance to the plain copper color of the kettle.
6. Coloring and Finishing
Finally, to give a different texture to the metal surface, the kettle is dipped into a solution and the color changed. There are two kinds of coloring methods. In the black color-based method, the kettle is tinned and fired at 800°C, and then hammered. For coloring, the product is then boiled in the liquid obtained by mixing green rust and copper sulfate, which gives an attractive dark purple color called kinko. In the red color-based method, the product is boiled for several hours longer in the liquid until the creation of a brown color called sentoku. Tsubame Tsuiki Coppereware articles made by repeated hammering of a single piece of copper plate have a unique beauty seen in no other metal work.
The copperware we see today is a testimony to the traditional techniques of tsuiki lying at the heart of Tsubame Tsuiki Coppereware and faithfully handed down through generations of skilled artisans.
- - - - - Tsubame Industrial Materials Museum
- source : kogeijapan.com/locale -

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Hand Hammered Copper Vase by Gyokusendo Corp
- source : themodernvault.com/product -



CLICK for more of Gyokusendo metal art work !

- HP of Gyokusendo 無形文化財 鎚起銅器 - 200 Years Gyokusendo 玉川堂
- reference source : gyokusendo.com-

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Tsubame-tsuiki Bronze Ware
Tsubame-tsuiki bronze ware is a traditional artifact that is created using an extremely complex forging technique, which can be summarized as the hammering of a plate of bronze in a wide variety of ways. This will turn it into the shapes of various accessories such as kettles, flower vases and plateware.

While it might seem a great wonder that one plate of metal can be turned into the shape of an almost round object, this is what makes a Tsubame-tsuiki bronze ware artisan a master of his craft. On the inner side of a bronze plate, one connects an iron stick called “Toriguchi” whose pointed end can come in hundred different kinds of shapes. When the plate is beaten from the outside with a hammer (of which there are hundred types as well), it eventually changes into a 3-dimensional shape. The vibration that is given to the bronze plate creates some unique effects, depending on the shapes of “Toriguchi” and hammers and how the plate is beaten; It can then be stretched or even shrunk. This is the hardest part of its production process, and it would take 20 to 30 years for one artisan to be able to handle the entire process on his/her own.

The metal-processing industry in Tsubame city, Niigata prefecture originated from the making of Japanese nails as a side business for farmers in the beginning of the 17th century. With the convenience of the near Yahiko mountain being a copper mine, many variety of products connected fine skills and creativity came to prominence. These included bronze ware, pipe, file, and yatate (portable writing utensils with a brush and an ink bottle).

During the 18th century, a technique called “Tsuiki” was brought by artisans from the area which covers the current Sendai in Miyagi Prefecture. It enables one to make kettles, flower vases or plates without any joint lines by beating out one bronze plate repeatedly. This was the start of Tsubame-tsuki bronze ware, leading to what has now become a world-famous craft. It has the practicality and artistry of traditional craftwork created by highly-skilled artisans and its luster more comes out after repeated use.

In addition to traditional everyday items, Tsubame-tsuiki bronze ware is now available in the form of new product designs which have never been seen before, such as Western plates or wine coolers, receiving high acclaim in and out of the country. It has been used as plateware, for instance, in a world-famous French restaurant and has been featured in collaborations with well-known brands’ new products, which has served the purpose of spreading traditional Japanese craftwork out to the rest of the world.
- - - - - Tsubame Local Industry Promotion Center
- source : japan-brand.jnto.go.jp/crafts -



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