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2/20/2017

imono metal art

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imono 鋳物 ironware, cast iron, metal art
chuukin 鋳金 Chukin, metal casting


quote
Having had its foundation laid in antiquity, metal craft using both precious and non-precious materials has achieved a high degree of refinement in Japan. Despite its superb quality, metalwork does not enjoy the renown of other Japanese crafts.
source : japan-brand.jnto.go.jp/category/crafts/metal

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. hoochoo 包丁 Hocho knives .
- waboochoo 和包丁 Wabocho Japanese knives

. tetsubin 鉄瓶 iron kettles .
Iwate Nanbu Tekki

. tsuiki 鎚起, tsuikin 鎚金 hammered metal ware, metalware .
tankin 緞金 beating gold
Also called tanzoo 緞造, uchimono 打物, tsuikin 鎚金 and kaji 鍛冶
Tsubame Tsuiki Dooki 燕鎚起銅器 Tsuiki Doki : hammered metal ware from Tsubame town, Niigata


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- - - - - quotes from JAANUS - - - - -

chuukin 鋳金 - chukin
Metal casting. A technique used in metalwork to produce vessels or sculptures by melting down metal and pouring it into a mould. Metals used for casting include gold, silver, copper, iron, tin, lead, aluminium, and a variety of alloys. Bronze makes a particularly good casting metal and is highly resistant to corrosion. The casting process can be divided into three stages: i) making the mould, ii) pouring in the molten metal, iii) the finishing stage. Stages ii) and iii) are common to all cast-metal works, but stage i) varies, as there are a great many materials and methods which can be used to make the casting mould igata 鋳型. The best-known methods include:
1 
Stone mould casting *ishigata 石型, which was used to make bronze objects such as the Yayoi period halberd and doutaku 銅鐸 (bell-shaped bronze). Molten bronze was poured into a mould carved into a block of sandstone.
2 
Lost-wax casting *rougata 蝋型 roogata, rogata, was the method used for all bronze sculptures produced from the sixth to the twelfth centuries. A clay model of the images was made as a core, and this was then covered with a layer of beeswax, on which surface features of the image were modelled. Then another layer of clay was added to make an outer shell. Pins were inserted connecting the inner and outer shell, and the entire mould was fired. The wax melted and ran out, leaving an empty space, which was filled with molten bronze. When the bronze cooled and hardened the outer shell and inner core were removed. The surface of the statue was then finished with a chisel, and often gilded with an amalgam of gold and mercury.
3
*Sougata 総型 soogata, sogata, was a casting technique where the surface pattern was engraved on the inside of a clay mould and an inner core *nakago 中型, also made of clay but reduced in size according to the desired thickness of the metal object, was enclosed. After firing, melted metal was poured into the space between the outer mould and the inner core. An adaptation of sougata was kezuri-nakago-chuuzou 削り中型鋳造 (casting with a scraped-off mould). A clay core was covered by a second layer of clay which formed the outer mould. The outer mould was then removed from the core, and the surface of the core was scraped away, according to the desired thickness of the object. The outer mould was then replaced and molten metal poured into the space created by the scraping, between the outer mould and inner core.
4 
Replica casting *fumigaeshi 踏返 was a method used to produce a copy of a flat, simple metal object, for example a mirror. The original object was covered with clay to make a mould. The copy was then made by casting in the clay mould. The dimensions of the duplicate were slightly smaller, and the design less clear than that of the original.
5 
Another technique known as *komegata 込型 (sealed mould), or warikomegata 割込型 (sectioned sealed mould) used a clay mould applied directly over a wood, clay, or stone model of the statue. After firing or simply drying, the mould was divided into pieces and reassembled for casting. This method permitted fine details to be reproduced on the mould, and also had the advantage that it was possible to preserve the original model undamaged.
6 
The simplest casting method used in Japan, suitable for objects like coins or mirrors was the sand mould *sunagata 砂型. Sand was contained in a wooden or metal frame. A raw clay model of the desired object was pressed into the sand. Molten metal was then poured into the hollow impressed in the sand. This method began to be used in the Edo period. The earliest metal casting in Asia began in ancient China for making ceremonial bronze vessels, and later the technique was highly developed for the production of mirrors and Buddhist statues. In Japan important uses included Buddhist statues and implements,temple bells, mirrors, and the iron kettle used in the tea ceremony.

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kigata imono 木型鋳物
A method of metal casting using a wooden model. The wooden model was called kigata 木型.
The kigata was carved first, and over this a clay mould (sometimes called *megata 雌型) was made, which was then used for casting. Recent research suggests that the kigata imono method was used in the production of all gilt bronze images during and after the Late Heian period.

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rougata 蝋型 rogata
Also rougata chuuzou 蝋型鋳造, rougata imono 蝋型鋳物. A method of metal casting known as the lost-wax technique. Frequently used in Japan for casting bronze statues, which were often gilded. See *kondou 金銅. First, a basic model of the desired vessel or statue was made in clay or plaster. This was then covered with a layer of beeswax mixed with pine resin, which was moulded to the required shape and engraved with surface details. An outer layer of soft clay or plaster was then applied over the wax. The outer clay mould and the inner model were secured from the sides, or at the front and back, using fragments of metal *katamochi 型持 or metal pins *kougai 笄. The entire construction was then fired, causing the mould to harden and the wax to melt and run out. Melted metal was poured into the gap left by the wax, between the outer mould and the inner core. When the metal had cooled and hardened the statue was removed from the inner and outer moulds, and the marks left by the pins were repaired. See *ikake 鋳掛.
Solid metal statues were produced from a model made directly from wax without an inner core. This model was then covered, fired and cast.
The lost-wax method allowed free modelling, as the wax surface was very easy to work, and was suitable for casting complex forms and intricate detail. It produced a beautifully smooth, sculptural surface in bronze.
In Japan the lost-wax method was used from the 6c, beginning with small gilt-bronze statues of the Asuka and Nara periods such as the Shoukannonzou 聖観音像 in Yakushiji 薬師寺, Nara. Most of Japan's early bronze statues are believed to have been made by this method. Its use continued during and after the Heian period, and the same technique was used to make small decorative carvings *netsuke 根付 in the Edo period.

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chuuzou 鋳造 chuuzoo, chuzo - - - Also imono 鋳物.
Casting. A technique used to make cast sculptural forms. The base material was heated and melted down to a liquid, which was poured into a mould, igata 鋳型. This was then left to harden and the mould removed to leave a solid form. Metal, plaster, clay or glass could be cast in this way. The term chuuzoubutsu 鋳造仏 refers to cast Buddhist images. *Chuukin 鋳金 refers specifically to metal casting, but since metal was the material most commonly associated with cast images, the terms chuuzou and imono are often used interchangeably with chuukin.


kondou 金銅 kondoo, kondo - gilt bronze
- source : JAANUS : imono -

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- ABC - List of metal work from the Prefectures
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................................................................................ Ishikawa 石川県  

. kinpaku 金沢金箔 gold foil, gold leaf foil .
Kanazawa haku 金沢箔 leaf foil of gold, silver or platinum


................................................................................ Kanagawa 神奈川県  

. Odawara imono 小田原 鋳物 Odawara casting .


................................................................................ Kumamoto 熊本県   

. Higo zoogan 肥後象嵌 Higo Zogan inlay .


................................................................................ Niigata 新潟県  

. roogata chuukin 蝋型鋳金 wax casting .
Sado Island

. tsuiki 鎚起, tsuikin 鎚金 hammered metal ware, metalware .
Tsubame town 燕

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................................................................................ Osaka 大阪   

Osaka suzuki 大阪錫器 Osaka tin ware



6 Chome-6-15 Tanabe, Higashisumiyoshi Ward, Osaka / 大阪錫器 company
- reference source : osakasuzuki.co.jp -

- quote -
Osaka Naniwa tin ware
There are many kinds of drinking cups around the world. While the West offers various types of glassware, and Asia has a preference for ceramic cups, in Japan a tin cup style known as suzu-ki (tinware) can also be found in production.

Used since prehistoric times, tin was introduced to Japan by Kenzuishi, a Japanese envoy to Sui Dynasty China, and Kentoshi, a Japanese envoy to Tang Dynasty China, between the seventh and ninth centuries. Thereafter, tin began to be produced in Japan as well. But at the time, it was a material valued like gold and silver are today, so it was only used in limited settings, including the imperial court.

In the Edo Period (1603-1868), tinware became popular among the general public in the form of drinking cups and Japanese tea sets. By the middle of the period, the manufacture and sale of tinware began to center on parts of Osaka, with strong distribution channels in areas such as Shinsaibashi and Tenjinbashi. This heralded the beginning of Osaka Naniwa tinware.



While Naniwa tinware quickly evolved into a full-fledged industry, the start of World War 2 led many craftsmen to be drafted, and material procurement became difficult, plunging the technique into crisis. Following the war, craftsmen from around Osaka gathered to maintain the tradition of Osaka Naniwa tinware, and the industry was reborn. It was recognized by the Japanese government as a traditional craft in 1983.

Tinware is used for a wide variety of products due to its combination of practicality and aesthetic appeal. It is characterized by strong ion properties that have purifying effects on liquids, particularly removing zatsumi (unfavorable taste) from saké to make it smooth and delicious. Tin is also reputed for moisture protection, and is said to help maintain the freshness of tea leaves, making it suited for drinking cups, pots and teacups. Also, given its beautiful, clean color, it’s used for various products including cassolettes, cinnabar seal ink cases, Buddhist or Shinto religious instruments, and decorations.

Osaka Naniwa tinware boasts a tin percentage of more than 97 percent, and this high degree of purity truly brings out the benefits of tin.
- source : japan-brand.jnto.go.jp/crafts/metal -

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................................................................................ Toyama 富山県  

Takaoka imono 高岡鋳物 Takaoka metal ware



- quote -
Takaoka Casting
Each area in Japan is rooted with its own unique metal industry, and in Takaoka, Toyama Prefecture, a wide range of metal casting techniques such as bronze, alloy and tin have been developed. Bronze in particular accounts for 95% of the production nationwide.

Takaoka-Imono emerged from a town called Kanaya machi located along the Senbogawa river in Takaoka city, Toyama Prefecture. In 1609, Maeda Toshinaga, the second head of Kaga Domain and builder of a castle in Takaoka, invited seven Imoji artisans in hope of revitalizing the local industry.

The production of Imono using copper alloy became particularly popular around the 18th century. In 1873, at the Weltausstellung 1873 Wien, Kanamori Soshichi, who ran his own Imono production factory and exported his products, was awarded a prize, which led to more artisans in the country receiving awards, and Imono establishing its status globally. In 1975, it was certified as a Traditional Craftwork by the national government, and has since been used for the creation of a wide variety of products, with new crafting techniques constantly emerging.


source : 4travel.jp/travelogue
- 藤子不二雄 - まんが道 Manga Road in Takaoka -

Takaoka-Imono
has recently been adopted for the production of bronze statues of popular manga characters, which have then been placed in various parts of Japan. For the past few years, local municipalities and people in shopping arcades in the metropolitan area have begun to place bronze statues of popular manga characters as part of their plan to revitalize their communities. In March, 2010, 11 statues of characters from the popular manga most commonly known as Kochikame were placed around the Kameari station in Katsushika Ward, Tokyo. In March, 2012, 12 statues of “family” characters from “Sazae-san”, a ubiquitous manga/anime series that depicts the everyday life of one family, were put in place around the Sakura-shinmachi station of the Tokyu Denen-toshi line as part of the city’s shopping arcade, “Sakura-shinmachi” shopping street in Setagaya Ward trying to enliven its community.
In March, 2013, a bronze statue of Ozora Tsubasa, the main character from the manga “Captain Tsubasa”, was placed in Yotsugi-tsubasa park in Katsushika Ward, Tokyo. All statues are made of Takaoka-Imono. By collaborating with popular manga characters in the form of bronze statues, Takaoka Imono has made itself known to many around the country, which led to boosting the sale of its products as well.

As for plateware, the gorgeous looks of cups and sauce-pouring containers using antibacterial tin make them popular as gifts for loved ones.

Nowadays many companies in Takaoka are shifting their production focus to the making of high-quality interior decoration. These combine modern tastes with the influence of Japanese design to create products you won’t find anywhere else.
- source : japan-brand.jnto.go.jp/crafts -


Takaoka dooki 高岡銅器 bronze work






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................................................................................ Yamagata 山形県  

. Yamagata imono 山形鋳物 ironware, cast iron, metal art - Yamagata Casting .


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. Regional Folk Toys from Japan .

. Japan - Shrines and Temples .


. Tohoku after the BIG earthquake March 11, 2011

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